律师解读欧盟对虚拟货币的重要定义

巴比特    2016-07-07 15:11:33

作者Jacek Czarnecki是华沙律师事务所Wardynski & Partners的一名律师,他擅长的领域包括金融科技(FinTech)、数字货币以及区块链。

最近,欧盟委员会为打击恐怖主义融资和避税问题,采纳了一项新的立法提议,这意味着虚拟货币交易所和托管钱包提供商,都被纳入了欧盟的反洗钱指令,此外,欧盟还在法律中首次对虚拟货币进行了定义。在这篇文章中, Czarnecki分析了这一新定义对区块链行业的影响。


欧盟委员会本周通过了一项立法提议,这意味着虚拟货币交易所和托管钱包提供商,都被纳入了欧盟的反洗钱指令。

这一举措是可预见到的,很显然欧盟委员希望扩展反洗钱监管的框架。然而,这项法律建议的重要性仍可超过反洗钱法规。

其中最值得注意的,是欧盟在法律中首次对“虚拟货币”进行了定义。

根据该提议,“虚拟货币”是指:

“……不由央行或政府机构发行的价值的数字体现,其不一定要依附于法币,但它需被自然人或法人所接受,并作为一种支付的手段,可用于传输、存储或电子交易。”

这一定义是很广泛的,但技术上是中立的(理论上不限于比特币这样的加密货币)。

此外,它还有两个主要部分:其一,是不由政府机构发行的“数字价值体现”的宽泛概念,其二,需有人接受它作为一个支付的手段(未具体指出规模),并拥有电子的形式。

看来,虽然这一定义是广泛的,但例如以太币(以太坊区块链的原生代币)这类虚拟货币将会如何被对待,这仍然是未明确的。这是因为,以太币虽是在交易所上进行交易的,但它很少作为支付的手段。

自2017年1月1日起,所有欧盟成员国家的反洗钱法律都会纳入这一定义。而在很多国家,这将是加密货币首次被纳入法律。

虽然这一定义将直接应用于在反洗钱监管,很它可能还会影响其他的法律。

这意味着,引入“虚拟货币”的定义,有可能在欧盟国家的法律系统中成为一个锚点。法院和政府部门将无需再去解释自己的定义(有时是针对一些特定的目标),但必须要顾及到目前的反洗钱法律定义。

尽管如此,对于国家金融监管机构或者税务机关而言,它仍然可以是一个有用的工具,因为到目前为止,他们在法律上并没有一个可用的锚点。而现在,他们将能够使用一个已建立的定义。

这一定义是否会经得起时间的考验,又或者能让虚拟货币技术在欧盟地区发展与竞争,这仍然有待于观察。

 

原文:http://www.coindesk.com/anti-terror-eu-definition-digital-currencies/
作者:Jacek Czarnecki
编译:隔夜的粥
稿源(译):巴比特资讯(http://www.8btc.com/eu-definition-digital-currencies)
版权声明: 作者保留权利。文章为作者独立观点,不代表巴比特立场。
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